Legal Alerts / 19 Nov 2012

Legal Alert – A New Article on the Finnish Mining Pledge Published

A new article on the Finnish mining pledge (“Panttioikeus uuden kaivoslainsäädännön mukaan”, available in Finnish only) has been published in Defensor Legis (5/2012), the law journal of the Finnish Bar Association. The article, authored by Mr Tuomas Tikkanen, is the first referee publication on the mining pledge and brings in a comprehensive way new insight into issues involving the subject matter.

Previously the mining pledge was only cursorily discussed in the Finnish legal literature. In addition to its academic merits, the new article may considerably help the industry (exploration and mining companies as well as their financiers) and the mining official in various practical considerations.

A brief summary on the Finnish mining pledge is set out below.


Pursuant to a recent mining legislation reform, the new Finnish Mining Act (621/2011) (the “Mining Act”) and the Finnish Mining Decree (391/2012) (the “Mining Decree”) have been introduced. From the financing perspective, of particular interest are the provisions on pledge over a mining permit and, accordingly, an exploration permit (collectively mining pledge). As one of the new features, such provisions allow the grant of both first and second ranking mining pledges, which may be practicable e.g. in large mining projects involving both bank and debt capital financing. Further, pursuant to the revised provisions, the previously experienced uncertainties in respect of the establishment of an effective mining pledge have been overcome. Generally speaking, the mining pledge can nowadays be considered as an effective and bankable security.


As a background, the Finnish mining legislation follows (instead of a concession or land owner system) a system based on exploration permits (previously claim rights) and mining permits (previously mining rights). An exploration permit entitles its holder to exercise ore prospecting in the given area and to a priority in obtaining a mining permit. The mining permit, on the other hand, entitles its holder to extract ore or minerals from the ground and thereby receive title to them. Generally, the relevant rights under both an exploration permit and mining permit are considered proprietary rights that may, among other things, be transferred or pledged to a third party.

It should be noted that the mining and claim rights established pursuant to the previous mining acts of 1965 and, respectively, 1943 remained in full force and effect despite the latest reform. The same applies to the previously established mining pledges over such rights. In broad terms, the legal effects associated with such rights are very close to the ones associated with the new mining and exploration permits.

Further, the Mining Act allows the pledging of both mining and exploration permits and previous mining rights pursuant to the new provisions. Although the wording of or the preparatory works to the Mining Act do not support such interpretation, it may (pursuant to the mining act of 1965) be argued that previous claim rights may be pledged pursuant to the new provisions also.


Pursuant to the Mining Act, a mining pledge is perfected by a notification to the mining official, nowadays being the Finnish Safety and Chemicals Agency (Tukes). The notification needs to be made by the pledgor (i.e., the holder of the relevant permit or right) and in accordance with the rather detailed requirements under the Mining Decree. A copy of the relevant pledge agreement or, alternatively, pledge undertaking needs to be attached to the notice.

It is also worth mentioning that the perfection under the mining act of 1965 was generally understood to require registration of the pledge in the mining register, although some concerns were raised in respect of the notes evidencing mining and claim rights (in Finnish: kaivos- ja valtauskirjat). Since the Mining Act does not recognise such notes, they no longer play any role e.g. in the transfer of title or pledging of the mining or claim rights (or the mining or exploration permits under the new act).

The new statutes allow the establishment of multiple mining pledges with different rankings. The secured amount under a pledge may be limited to a certain amount (in Euros or other currency), thereby allowing the pledgor to e.g. grant a first ranking pledge for bank financing and a second ranking pledge for debt capital financing. As a curiosity, both the first and behind ranking pledges are perfected by means of the pledgor notifying the mining official of the relevant pledge. However, in case of a behind ranking pledge, the pledgor is obligated to make a notification to the pledgees of the ahead ranking pledges also.


The ranking of mining pledges may be easily changed by a notice to the mining official provided, however, that the pledgees of the ahead ranking pledges consent to such change. A pledgee may also transfer its pledge to a third party without the consent of the pledgor, the other pledgees or the mining official.

Thanks to the Mining Decree, it may be stated that a considerable improvement in the legal protection of the pledgees has taken place. Pursuant to the decree, the mining official has an obligation to notify each pledgee separately of any pending cancellation or changes involving the underlying permit. The pledgees have accordingly a right to be heard in the process, which means in practice that the mining official must give the pledgees reasonable time to provide their statements in the matter. Further, pursuant to a specific provision of the Mining Decree, a cancellation of the underlying permit applied by the pledgor himself is always subject to the consents of the pledgees.


The Mining Act or the Mining Decree includes no provisions on the enforcement of a mining pledge. However, pursuant to the general rules and principles outlined in the Finnish Commercial Code (3/1734, as amended), a pledgee does have the right to enforce the pledge by himself even in the case of bankruptcy of the pledgor. The enforcement may be carried out by the pledgor by means of selling the relevant rights under the permit (in practice, by transferring the permit) to a third party or, under certain circumstances, by redeeming such rights. Both the sales price and the redemption price are subject to the general requirement of fidelity and should be carefully considered beforehand. Depending on the applicable terms of the pledge agreement or, alternatively, the pledge undertaking and the possible insolvency proceedings of the pledgor, certain additional requirements (such as notifications to the pledgor or its bankruptcy estate) may need to be complied with also.

Further, it should be noted that the transferee of a permit or right under the pledge needs to qualify as entrepreneur pursuant to Section 73 of the Mining Act. The transfer needs to be notified to and consented by the mining official that may, however, refuse to give its consent only in very exceptional circumstances set out in the Mining Act.

Attorneys at law Borenius has been actively engaged in the preparation of the new Finnish mining legislation. For further information on the mining pledge and related security issues, please see the articles “Panttioikeus uuden kaivoslainsäädännön mukaan” (published in Defensor Legis 5/2012) and “Muun kaivosomaisuuden vakuuskäyttö” (to be published in Defensor Legis 6/2012) (available in Finnish only).

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